Kidney Stone Under Microscope
Scanning electron micrograph of a kidney stone (nephrolithiasis). Kidney stones form when salts, minerals and chemicals in the urine (for example calcium, oxalate and uric acid) crystallise and solidify. Small kidney stones are often passed naturally but larger stones can sometimes get lodged in the kidney or other parts of the urinary tract. Size of stone is 2 mm.
Image Credit: Kevin Mackenzie, University of Aberdeen/Wellcome Images
More images from the Wellcome Image Awards 2014: http://is.gd/gR8BuV
from Hashem AL-ghaili
Genes amplify the stress of harsh environments for some children, and magnify the advantage of supportive environments for other children, according to a study that’s one of the first to document how genes interacting with social environments affect biomarkers of stress.
"Our findings suggest that an individual’s genetic architecture moderates the magnitude of the response to external stimuli—but it is the environment that determines the direction" says Colter Mitchell, lead author of the paper and a researcher at the University of Michigan Institute for Social Research (ISR).
The study, published today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, uses telomere length as a marker of stress. Found at the ends of chromosomes, telomeres generally shorten with age, and when individuals are exposed to disease and chronic stress, including the stress of living in a disadvantaged environment.
For the study, Mitchell and colleagues used telomere samples from a group of 40 nine-year-old boys from two very different environments – one nurturing and the other harsh. Those in the nurturing environment came from stable families, with nurturing parenting, good maternal mental health, and positive socioeconomic conditions, while those in the harsh environment experienced high levels of poverty, harsh parenting, poor maternal mental health, and high family instability.
For those children with heightened sensitivity in the serotonergic and dopaminergic genetic pathways compared to other children, telomere length was shortest in a disadvantaged environment, and longest in a supportive environment.
…But I will never give up!
The British traveler R.W. Felkin who reported this noted that the healer used banana wine to semi-intoxicate the woman and to cleanse his hands and her abdomen prior to surgery. He used a midline incision and applied cautery to minimize hemorrhaging. He massaged the uterus to make it contract but did not suture it; the abdominal wound was pinned with iron needles and dressed with a paste prepared from roots. The patient recovered well, and Felkin concluded that this technique was well-developed and had clearly been employed for a long time. Similar reports come from Rwanda, where botanical preparations were also used to anesthetize the patient and promote wound healing.
Africans were performing many advanced medical procedures long before they had been conceived in Europe this is just one of many examples.
AN EXAMPLE OF AFRICAN MEDICAL SCIENCE. ILLUSTRATION OF AFRICAN DOCTORS IN 19TH CENTURY (1879) KAHARA, UGANDA PERFORMING A CAESARIAN SECTION. SUCCESSFUL EXAMPLES OF THIS OPERATION WERE VIRTUALLY UNKNOWN IN EUROPE AT THE TIME.
Reference: “Notes on Labour in Central Africa” published in the Edinburgh Medical Journal, volume 20, April 1884, pages 922-930.
"I’m trying to find money for African start-ups. But I’m much too African for this cold weather."
"What sort of start-ups?"
"Most of them combine agriculture and mobile technology."
"How do those two things go together?"
"Africa is is an interesting case because it skipped the PC age and went straight to mobile. The economy is still largely based on agriculture, and farmers are beginning to use mobile technology to keep track of weather updates, market prices, and improved farming techniques."
His apology at the end to the patient is monumental. I admire his willingness to admit he may have been wrong.
As a young surgeon, Peter Attia felt contempt for a patient with diabetes. She was overweight, he thought, and thus responsible for the fact that she needed a foot amputation. But years later, Attia received an unpleasant medical surprise that led him to wonder: is our understanding of diabetes right? Could the precursors to diabetes cause obesity, and not the other way around? A look at how assumptions may be leading us to wage the wrong medical war.
Gorgeous image of stem cells involved in healing a tail wound. Cell nuclei are in blue. Red and orange mark hair follicle stem cells (hair follicle stem cells activate to cause hair regrowth, which indicates healing).
Creator: Yaron Fuchs and Samara Brown
A intussuception as seen on CT
An intussusception is a medical condition in which a part of the intestine has invaginated into another section of intestine, similar to the way in which the parts of a collapsible telescope slide into one another.This can often result in an obstruction. The part that prolapses into the other is called the intussusceptum, and the part that receives it is called the intussuscipiens.Early symptoms can include nausea, vomiting (sometimes bile stained [green color]), pulling legs to the chest area, and intermittent moderate to severe cramping abdominal pain. Pain is intermittent not because the intussusception temporarily resolves, but because the intussuscepted bowel segment transiently stops contracting. Later signs include rectal bleeding, often with “red currant jelly” stool (stool mixed with blood and mucus), and lethargy. Physical examination may reveal a “sausage-shaped” mass felt upon palpation of the abdomen.