Hey fellow premeders! As promised, here is my note on Molecular Biology; mainly, cell metabolism and different types of biological molecules. It should be 8.5 x 11 inches for those who want to print everything out. If you’re having trouble viewing a part of the page, or if it looks blurry, click here (x). Feel free to message any criticisms or concerns!
A really good friend of mine made these and they’re really good
She also made a book of other notes so I hope she posts them soon!
This is awesome!
WOW! A must-read story for all pre-meds.
I trained as a pediatrician at St. Vincents Hospital in the West Village. I think Vinnies was the reason why I stayed sane during residency. If I had to do my residency somewhere in Pennsyltucky, I don’t know if I could have made it. I needed the diversity, the beauty, the history, and the community. I needed the most beautiful neighborhood in the best city in the world.
And the West Village sure had the diversity. All you had to do was hang out in the ER on a Friday night and you’d see almost anything you could imagine. We had the celebrities right next to the well-known neighborhood drunks who made an appearance every weekend. We also treated the Brooklyn poor who were savvy enough to know that Vinnies was just a block away from the Manhattan-bound L train and was far superior than any hospital in Brooklyn.
The one thing about being a doctor I just couldn’t handle is you are the point person for all the horrible things that happen in society. An NYU student jumps from the 10th floor of the library, you see it. In fact, I saw three of those one year. A kid in the projects a few blocks away tries to scale down from the roof of the building to enter his burned down apartment to get his video games, only to have his rope break from the 12th story, you see that too. You see the kid who was riding his skateboard on the sidewalk as his neighbor is mowing the yard who inadvertently runs over a baseball sending it into the child’s head at 300mph, yep, you see that too. Or the one month old who was riding in the back of an SUV on a treelined highway on a windy day that sent a tree falling into her parents in the front seat, killing them instantly. You see it.
The one thing I could never get used to was simply how often babies are born in toilets and left to be found by someone else only to be rushed to the ER and transported to our Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Their first breath in this beautiful world is toilet water. This happens more than any of you could possibly think and I would care to remember.
I no longer practice medicine. One of the reasons is because I’m a fairly optimistic “the world is a beautiful place” kind of guy and quite susceptible to my environment and the people around me. As a pediatrician, your world view is skewed toward the horrific. Hell, as any kind of doctor, you’re surrounded by sick people and death. This just wasn’t for me nor was it something I considered upon making my decision to enter medical school. If the vast majority of pre-med students knew exactly what they were getting into when they decided to become a doctor, we’d probably have very few doctors. Naiveté is necessary. But once I found myself in that world surrounded by babies born in toilets and random fatal accidents, I knew I had to do something else. I knew I had to be in a situation that wasn’t so bad for my emotional and mental health. I figured Preventive Medicine made sense— work with healthy people and keep them well. But who pays a doctor to keep you well? Nobody really. It’s estimated that 2% of our healthcare system’s dollars come from preventive measures.
I’m extremely happy with my life. I don’t have to be on the front lines. Not everyone is cut out for that. And I can build systems that help doctors be better doctors and patients be better patients. I can build a platform that makes doctors more accessible, because accessibility is the best prevention. I’m honestly the luckiest man having stumbled into my newfound profession. I’d like to say this was all part of some grand masterplan, but my plan was to create my life by always being on the lookout for opportunities to build things that make healthcare better.
And I can look in awe at those amazing healthcare professionals who are on the front lines sawing babies out of sewer pipes in China. Hug one of them if you know one tonight and just say thank you. They sacrificed a blissfully ignorant worldview that most of us are lucky enough to have, to witness firsthand the shit of the world so they can save others. They are a special breed.
In this photograph taken on April 17, 2013, fifteen month old Roona Begum is tended to by doctors and family at a local hospital in Gurgaon on the outskirts of New Delhi. Doctors have successfully carried out life-saving surgery on an Indian baby suffering from a rare disorder that caused her head to swell to nearly double its size, a neurosurgeon told AFP on May 15, 2013. “The surgery went perfectly, much better than expected,” Sandeep Vaishya said after the procedure on 15-month-old Roona Begum, speaking to an AFP reporter inside the operating theatre at a hospital in New Delhi.
Credit: SCHMIDTROBERTO SCHMIDT/AFP/Getty Images
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Purkinje neurons play an essential role in motor function. Here the Purkinje neurons reach their arbor-like dendrites into the molecular layer of the developing cerebellum of a mouse. The mostly green cells at the bottom left are cerebellar granule cells, which relay information from the nervous system to the Purkinje neurons.
Alright, moving along to dopamine (DA), which is probably my favorite neurotransmitter (and likely yours too- even though you don’t realize it!). Dopamine is the neurotransmitter involved in addiction (shown above for cocaine- since cocaine blocks the dopamine transporter, it causes dopamine to stay in the synapse longer), and basically anything rewarding. When you get a surprise or win some money, dopamine is what causes that feel-good rush! It’s the transmitter involved in reward, but it also has other functions as well- it helps with prefrontal concentration, accurate movements, control of thoughts (too much can cause hallucinations), etc. It’s really an incredible molecule!
Dopamine is produced in the Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA) and Substantia Nigra (SN) in the midbrain and has widespread effects throughout the brain- in the basal ganglia circuitry and throughout cortex. I’ll be talking more about this one in coming posts since it’s quite fascinating to me!
AMCAS® (American Medical College Application Service) application opens today May 8th
Here we go! I wish all the applicants for entering class of 2014 all the best.
The Achilles tendon is the strongest tendon in the body, a subject to a person’s entire body weight with each step. Located in the posterior leg, it connects the calcaneus (the heel bone) to the lower leg muscles (gastrocnemius (calf), soleus, and plantaris muscles). The Achilles raises the heel and transfers weight to the toes.
While the strongest, it’s also the most commonly injured, with full and partial ruptures occurring during activities requiring sudden stretching such as sprinting. The tendon can be subject to forces of 3-12 times body weight during a sprint or push off. Excessive force may cause a partial tear or complete rupture. The treatment of an Achilles rupture requires complete immobilization and often surgical repair. More details on the symptoms, diagnosis and treatment can be found here.